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中国农民丰收节、超级高铁、个税起征点提高…丨热词榜(6.16-22)

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  一周新闻热词榜,一网打尽trending news。新一期热词榜发榜啦!

  本周的新闻热词有:

  1.'个税法'修正案草案初审

  2.我国设'中国农民丰收节'

  3.'超级高铁'试验线正搭建

  4.养老金建'中央调剂制度'

  5.新西兰总理诞'第一宝宝'

个人所得税法individual income tax law

  A draft amendment to the individual income tax law has been submitted for a first reading at a bimonthly session of the National People's Congress Standing Committee. Specific personal income tax changes that aim to reduce taxpayer burdens and boost consumption are expected after the proposed changes receive regulatory approval.

  近日,个人所得税法修正案草案提请全国人大常委会初次审议。此次提交审议的草案通过后,有望出台减轻纳税人负担、刺激消费等个人所得税具体改革措施。

  个人所得税法修正案草案的亮点有:

  ➤ 起征点提高

  raise the threshold

  The draft amendment raises the threshold for personal income tax from 3,500 yuan to 5,000 yuan per month, or 60,000 yuan per year.

  草案将个税起征点由之前的3500元上调至5000元/月(6万元/年)。

  ➤ 专项附加扣除

  special expense deductions

  The draft amendment adds special expense deductions for items like children's education, continuing education, treatment for serious diseases, as well as housing loan interest and rent.

  草案首次增加子女教育支出、继续教育支出、大病医疗支出、住房贷款利息和住房租金等专项附加扣除。

  ➤ 税率变化

  changes in tax rates

  扩大3%、10%、20%三档低税率的级距,3%税率(tax rate)的级距扩大一倍,现行税率为10%的部分所得的税率降为3%;大幅扩大10%税率的级距,现行税率为20%的所得,以及现行税率为25%的部分所得的税率降为10%;现行税率为25%的部分所得的税率降为20%;相应缩小25%税率的级距,30%、35%、45%这三档较高税率的级距保持不变。

  If the revisions are adopted, those whose monthly salary ranges from 5,000 yuan to 20,000 yuan will see their tax cut by over 50% and those whose monthly salary ranges from 20,000 to 80,000 will see their tax cut by 10-50%.

  如果草案通过,月收入在5000元至2万元之间的人纳税额将减半,月收入在2万元至8万元之间的人纳税额将减少10%到50%。

  ➤ 综合征税

  comprehensive income taxation

  现行个人所得税法采用"分类征税"方式,即将应税所得分为11类,实行不同征税办法。草案将11类中的4类,即工资薪金(salary)、劳务报酬(remuneration for personal service)、稿酬(remuneration)、特许权使用费(royalty)等4项劳动性所得纳入综合征税范围,适用统一的超额累进税率。

  ➤ 反避税条款

  anti-tax avoidance clause

  The draft amendment also adds an anti-tax avoidance clause, empowering tax authorities to adjust tax rates when individuals transfer property in violation of independent trading. Individuals will also be subject to the clause when they evade taxes through overseas tax havens or obtain improper tax benefits by organizing unlawful commercial activities.

  草案增加了反避税规定,针对个人不按独立交易原则转让财产、在境外避税地避税、实施不合理商业安排获取不当税收利益等避税行为,赋予税务机关按合理方法进行纳税调整的权力。

  [相关词汇]

  起征点 tax exemption threshold

  九级征税级别 nine-bracket system

  课税负担 tax burdens

  收入分配 distribution of income

  纳税人 taxpayer

  中低收入人群 medium and low-income population

  累进税制 progressive taxing mechanism

  减少税级 downsizing tax brackets

  税收 tax revenue

  实得工资 take-home pay

  全额工资 gross income

  营业税 business tax

  企业所得税 income tax for enterprises

  避税 tax avoidance

  逃税 tax evasion

  代扣代缴 withhold and remit tax

  税收优惠 tax preference

中国农民丰收节Chinese Farmers' Harvest Festival

  Chinese Farmers' Harvest Festival, the first in China created specially for farmers, reflects the high priority the central government places on agriculture, rural areas and rural people, as well as its determination to see a thriving agricultural industry, beautiful countryside and well-off farmers.

  "中国农民丰收节"是第一个专为农民设立的节日。设立这一节日反映了党中央对"三农"工作高度重视,以及确保农业繁荣、农村美丽、农民富足的决心。

  ➤ 经党中央批准、国务院批复,自2018年起我国将每年农历秋分(autumn equinox)设立为"中国农民丰收节"。为何将"中国农民丰收节"设立在秋分?农业农村部部长韩长赋透露主要是基于三方面的考虑。

  ➤ 从节气上看,春种秋收,春华秋实,秋分时节硕果累累,最能体现丰收(it's the best time to celebrate the harvest)。

  ➤ 从区域上看,我国地域辽阔、物产丰富,各地收获的时节有所不同,但多数地方都在秋季(Although climates and crops differ in various parts of China, most crops mature in autumn),秋收作物是大头。

  ➤ 从民俗上看,我们国家有十几个少数民族有庆祝丰收的传统节日(ethnic groups in China have their own festivals at harvest time),大多都在下半年。在国家层面设立一个各民族共同参与、共庆丰收的节日,有利于促进中华民族大家庭的和睦团结和发展(to enhance harmony and development of the Chinese nation)。

  ▌"中国农民丰收节"会有哪些庆祝活动?

  The festival should celebrate farmers, and they are encouraged to think of their own ways to celebrate harvest, Han said.

  韩长赋说,这是农民的节日,鼓励农民用自己的方式庆祝丰收。

  Some activities will be held nationwide, but most of the celebration will take place at a local level derived from local customs, he said, adding that local governments could host various activities for the festival, such as folk culture performances, food tasting, feasting and sightseeing.

  会举办一些全国性的活动,但大部分庆祝活动都会结合当地的民俗文化展开,当地政府可以组织开展民俗文化表演、食物品尝、美食及观光活动。

  [相关词汇]

  乡村治理体系 rural governance model

  农业农村现代化 modernization of agriculture and rural areas

  "三农"问题(农业农村农民问题)

  issues relating to agriculture, rural areas, and rural people

  产业兴旺、生态宜居、乡风文明、治理有效、生活富裕

  to build rural areas with thriving businesses, pleasant living environments, social etiquette and civility, effective governance, and prosperity

超级高铁super high-speed train

  At the World Transport Convention 2018 held in Beijing on Tuesday, chief professor of Southwest Jiaotong University Zhang Weihua told the media that China is exploring super high-speed trains that can travel at 1,500 kilometers per hour.

  19日,西南交通大学首席教授张卫华在北京举行的2018世界交通运输大会上向媒体表示,我国正在探索时速达1500公里的超级高铁。

  ➤ 张卫华认为,高速磁悬浮轨道交通(high-speed magnetic suspension rail transport)将成为未来轨道交通技术发展的主攻方向。他透露,目前我国正在成都搭建的比例模型车试验线(scale model train test line)采用"高温超导磁悬浮真空管"技术(high-temperature superconductivity magnetic suspension plus vacuum valve technology),预计今年底前将建成并投入试验测试,最快将于2021年4月达到1500公里试验时速。届时所有超高速磁悬浮列车(ultrahigh-speed maglev)试验都可以在此进行。

  ➤ 截至2017年底,我国高速铁路运营里程(operating mileage)达2.5万公里,约为世界高速铁路运营总里程的2/3,设计速度(design speed)最高为350-380公里/小时,上线运营列车达5200列,已成为名副其实的高铁大国。

  [相关词汇]

  真空管 vacuum tube

  减少摩擦和阻力 reduce friction and resistance

  超高速磁悬浮列车 ultrahigh-speed maglev

  缩短行程 cut the journey

中央调剂制度central adjustment system

  China will establish a central adjustment system for basic pension funds of enterprise employees to balance payment burdens of local governments, according to an official document.

  根据一项官方文件,我国将建立企业职工基本养老保险金中央调剂制度,以均衡地方政府的养老金负担。

  ➤ 国务院日前印发通知,决定建立养老保险基金中央调剂制度(a central adjustment system for basic pension funds)。主要内容是,在现行企业职工基本养老保险省级统筹基础上,建立养老保险中央调剂基金,对各省份养老保险基金进行适度调剂(a central adjustment fund will be set up to regulate pension funds in various provincial regions),确保基本养老金按时足额发放(help guarantee timely and complete payments to retirees)。

  一是中央调剂基金由各省份养老保险基金上解的资金构成(the adjustment fund draws a certain portion from the provincial capital pool),按照各省份职工平均工资的90%和在职应参保人数作为计算上解额的基数,上解比例从3%起步,逐步提高。

  二是中央调剂基金实行以收定支(distribution of the adjustment fund will be based on scale of the capital pool),当年筹集的资金按照人均定额拨付的办法全部拨付地方。

  三是中央调剂基金纳入中央级社会保障基金财政专户(the adjustment fund is managed by a special account of the central social security fund),实行收支两条线管理,专款专用,不得用于平衡财政预算。

  ➤ 四是现行中央财政补助政策和补助方式不变(the central government will continue supporting local governments in pension distributions),省级政府要切实承担确保基本养老金按时足额发放和弥补养老保险基金缺口的主体责任。

  [相关词汇]

  商业保险 commercial insurance

  养老保险 endowment insurance

  社会保障体系 social security system

  社会安全网 a net for social security

  养老金投资 pension funds investment

  居家养老服务 home-based elderly care services

第一宝宝First Baby

  New Zealand welcomes First Baby, as Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern has given birth to her first child, a "healthy baby girl". Ardern becomes the first female head of government in nearly 30 years to have a child while in office.

  新西兰总理杰辛达·阿德恩近日诞下一名健康的女婴,新西兰迎来"第一宝宝"。阿德恩是近30年来世界上首位在任内生育的女性政府首脑,这是她的第一个孩子。

  ➤ 阿德恩21日在奥克兰市医院诞下一名女婴,成为新西兰历史上首位在任内生育(give birth while in office)的女总理。阿德恩在社交媒体晒出全家福,她写道:"非常幸运能够有一个健康的女婴,她下午4时45分出生,体重3.31公斤。"接下来六周阿德恩将休产假(take maternity leave),其间将由副总理温斯顿·皮得斯充任代总理(serve as acting prime minister)。

  ➤ 阿德恩生于1980年,2008年成为新西兰议会议员,去年1月当选工党副领袖。7个月后,因工党时任领袖请辞,她被推选为新党首(was propelled into the job)。阿德恩和工党虽然没能赢得去年9月议会选举,但凭借成功组阁(through a coalition deal),时年37岁的阿德恩成为新西兰历史上第三位女总理(the third woman to be the country's prime minister)。

  ➤ 美国有线电视新闻网报道称,阿德恩是现代历史上第二位在任内诞下宝宝的政府首脑(the second leader in modern times to give birth while in office)。上一位是前巴基斯坦女总理贝布托,她在1990年担任总理期间生下了女儿。

  ➤ 阿德恩在新西兰民众中的支持率颇高。她一直工作到孕晚期(work until late into her pregnancy),公开活动时常见有民众抚摸她隆起的肚子(touch her stomach),还送她"连体衣(onesies)"、"迷你版雨靴(miniature gumboots)"等礼物。

  [相关词汇]

  孕产期福利 maternity benefits

  怀孕歧视 pregnancy discrimination

  阻碍事业发展 hinder career progression

  度过试用期 pass probation period

(编辑:HenryInn)